Common Sites of Infections and Organisms

Bacteria Type Examples Sites of Infection Gram Positive Cocci Staphylococci Streptococci Enterococci Skin, soft tissue, heart, lung, bone, joints, hardware, indwelling catheters Gram Negative Rods Lactose Fermenting: E. coli Klebsiella Enterobacter Lactose Non-Fermenting Pseudomonas Proteus Stenotrophomonas Lactose Slow Fermenting Serratia Citrobacter Lungs (HCAP, HAP, VAP) Any intraabdominal organ Genitourinary system Anaerobes Clostridium Bacteroides Peptostreptococcus Actinomyces … Continue reading Common Sites of Infections and Organisms


Classification of Bacteria

Morphology Cocci Spherical shape Rod/bacilli Elongated with straight sides Coccobacilli Mixed shape Gram Stain Positive Thick wall of peptidoglycan (polymer of sugars + amino acids) + phosopholipid bilayer forming the plasma membrane Stain purple Negative Outer membrane (lipopolysaccharide & protein) + thin peptidoglycan + plasma membrane Stain pink Variable (Coccobacilli) Acinobacter   Cocci Rods Coccobacilli … Continue reading Classification of Bacteria

Varicose veins

Background dilated, palpable, often tortuous subcutaneous veins >3mm in diameter usually involve saphenous veins, saphenous tributaries, and/or non-saphenous superficial leg veins Causes Primary most common cause, usually due to intrinsic biochemical or morphological abnormality in vein wall, may occur in setting of valvular incompetence Secondary previous DVT AV fistula deep vein obstruction superficial thrombophlebitis Congenital … Continue reading Varicose veins

Joanna Moncrieff: The Bitterest Pills

The Bitterest Pills: The Troubling Story of Antipsychotic Drugs Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs have become some of the biggest blockbusters of the early 21st century, increasingly prescribed not just to people with ‘schizophrenia’ or other severe forms of mental disturbance but for a range of more common psychological complaints. This book challenges the accepted account that … Continue reading Joanna Moncrieff: The Bitterest Pills

Dementia: An Introduction

Description neurodegenerative syndrome → progressive decline in several cognitive domains over months/years, usually signalled by memory loss Cognition: the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired i.e. perception, reasoning, acts of creativity, problem-solving and possibly intuition Subtypes Alzheimer's Disease Vascular Dementia (25%) cumulative effect of many small strokes sudden onset and stepwise deterioration Identify signs of … Continue reading Dementia: An Introduction